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Indium tin oxide thin film preparation and property relationship for humidity sensing: a review.

Rajendran, Vinooth; Prathuru, Anil; Fernandez, Carlos; Sujatha, Dhavamani; Panda, Subhendu K.; Faisal, Nadimul Haque


Dhavamani Sujatha

Subhendu K. Panda


This review aims to present a critical overview of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film preparation methods, structure–property relationship and its application in humidity sensing. A range of passive and active humidity sensors with thin films (based on metal oxides) detect humidity. ITO thin film has advantageous properties, such as low resistivity and high stability, making it highly suitable for humidity sensing applications. ITO thin film has shown an efficient level of humidity sensing and a compatible size of humidity sensor can monitor the interface conditions' humidity. So far, the application of ITO thin film for humidity measurement has yet to be explored at commercial scale, specifically in the detection of lower environmental humidity range (below 5% relative humidity (RH)). The research reveals a gap in improving ITO thin film properties with an optimal range of preparation conditions. The research opportunities in the preparation, properties, characteristics and efficient humidity sensitivity of ITO thin film are reviewed in this work.


RAJENDRAN, V., PRATHURU, A., FERNANDEZ, C., SUJATHA, D., PANDA, S.K. and FAISAL, N.H. [2024]. Indium tin oxide thin film preparation and property relationship for humidity sensing: a review. Engineering reports [online], Early View. Available from:

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Dec 14, 2023
Online Publication Date Jan 2, 2024
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jan 5, 2024
Journal Engineering reports
Electronic ISSN 2577-8196
Publisher Wiley Open Access
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Indium tin oxide; Thin films; Material properties; Humidity sensing; Thickness; Annealing temperature
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