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Surface area‐enhanced cerium and sulfur‐modified hierarchical bismuth oxide nanosheets for electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction to formate.

Palanimuthu, Naveenkumar; Subramaniam, Mohan Raj; P., Muthu Austeria; Sharma, Preetam Kumar; Ramalingam, Vinoth; Peramaiah, Karthik; Ramakrishnan, Shanmugam; Gu, Geun Ho; Yu, Eileen Hao; Yoo, Dong Jin


Naveenkumar Palanimuthu

Mohan Raj Subramaniam

Muthu Austeria P.

Preetam Kumar Sharma

Karthik Peramaiah

Shanmugam Ramakrishnan

Geun Ho Gu

Eileen Hao Yu

Dong Jin Yoo


Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (ECO2RR) is a promising approach to synthesize fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks while reducing atmospheric CO2 levels. Here, high surface area cerium and sulfur-doped hierarchical bismuth oxide nanosheets (Ce@S-Bi2O3) are develpoed by a solvothermal method. The resulting Ce@S-Bi2O3 electrocatalyst shows a maximum formate Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 92.5% and a current density of 42.09 mA cm−2 at −1.16 V versus RHE using a traditional H-cell system. Furthermore, using a three-chamber gas diffusion electrode (GDE) reactor, a maximum formate FE of 85% is achieved in a wide range of applied potentials (−0.86 to −1.36 V vs RHE) using Ce@S-Bi2O3. The density functional theory (DFT) results show that doping of Ce and S in Bi2O3 enhances formate production by weakening the OH* and H* species. Moreover, DFT calculations reveal that *OCHO is a dominant pathway on Ce@S-Bi2O3 that leads to efficient formate production. This study opens up new avenues for designing metal and element-doped electrocatalysts to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity for ECO2RR.


PALANTIMUTHU, N., SUBRAMANIAM, M.R., P, M.A., SHARMA, P.K., RAMALINGAM, V., PERAMAIAH, K., RAMAKRISHNAN, S., GU, G.H., YU, E.H. and YOO, D.J. 2024. Surface area-enhanced cerium and sulfur-modified hierarchical bismuth oxide nanosheets for electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction to formate. Small [online], Early View. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 21, 2024
Online Publication Date Jun 7, 2024
Deposit Date Jun 10, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jun 11, 2024
Journal Small
Print ISSN 1613-6810
Electronic ISSN 1613-6829
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Bismuth oxide; Density functional theory; Electrochemical CO2 reduction; Formate; Surface area
Public URL
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of the file associated with this output.


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