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DNA repair as a human biomonitoring tool: comet assay approaches.

Azqueta, Amaya; Langie, Sabine A.S.; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Duthie, Susan; Ladeira, Carina; M�ller, Peter; Collins, Andrew R.; Godschalk, Roger W.L.


Amaya Azqueta

Sabine A.S. Langie

Elisa Boutet-Robinet

Carina Ladeira

Peter M�ller

Andrew R. Collins

Roger W.L. Godschalk


The comet assay offers the opportunity to measure both DNA damage and repair. Various comet assay based methods are available to measure DNA repair activity, but some requirements should be met for their effective use in human biomonitoring studies. These conditions include i) robustness of the assay, ii) sources of inter- and intra-individual variability must be known, iii) DNA repair kinetics should be assessed to optimize sampling timing; and iv) DNA repair in accessible surrogate tissues should reflect repair activity in target tissues prone to carcinogenic effects. DNA repair phenotyping can be performed on frozen and fresh samples, and is a more direct measurement than genomic or transcriptomic approaches. There are mixed reports concerning the regulation of DNA repair by environmental and dietary factors. In general, exposure to genotoxic agents did not change base excision repair (BER) activity, whereas some studies reported that dietary interventions affected BER activity. On the other hand, in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that nucleotide excision repair (NER) can be altered by exposure to genotoxic agents, but studies on other life style related factors, such as diet, are rare. Thus, crucial questions concerning the factors regulating DNA repair and inter-individual variation remain unanswered. Intra-individual variation over a period of days to weeks seems limited, which is favourable for DNA repair phenotyping in biomonitoring studies. Despite this reported low intra-individual variation, timing of sampling remains an issue that needs further investigation. A correlation was reported between the repair activity in easily accessible peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and internal organs for both NER and BER. However, no correlation was found between tumour tissue and blood cells. In conclusion, although comet assay based approaches to measure BER/NER phenotypes are feasible and promising, more work is needed to further optimize their application in human biomonitoring and intervention studies


AZQUETA, A., LANGIE, S.A.S., BOUTET-ROBINET, E., DUTHIE, S., LADEIRA, C, MØLLER, P., COLLINS, A.R. and GODSCHALK, R.W.L. 2019. DNA repair as a human biomonitoring tool: comet assay approaches. Mutation research/reviews in mutation research [online], 781, pages 71-87. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 5, 2019
Online Publication Date Mar 6, 2019
Publication Date Sep 30, 2019
Deposit Date May 9, 2019
Publicly Available Date Mar 7, 2020
Journal Mutation research/Reviews in mutation research
Print ISSN 1383-5742
Electronic ISSN 1388-2139
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 781
Pages 71-87
Keywords DNA repair; Comet assay; Human biomonitoring; Validation
Public URL