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Exploring just-in-time teaching 3D development as a tool for enhancing knowledge and understanding.

McFadyen, Morag C.E.; Watson, Edward W.


Morag C.E. McFadyen

Edward W. Watson


The integumentary system (skin) is the first line of defence in the body and part of the innate immune system. Within first-year modules on Pharmaceutical Biology and Integrative Physiology in the Masters of Pharmacy degree at Robert Gordon University (RGU), several software tools were used to support both lecture and coursework material for the immune and integumentary systems. However, students had difficulty visualizing the various layers of the skin and how they become affected by different skin lesions. As a response to these identified learning difficulties, a just-in-time teaching three-dimensional e-learning object was developed using free-to-use 3D CAD packages, alongside common elearning software. The outcome was a virtualised human arm equipped to illustrate and label primary or secondary skin lesions whilst allowing spatial manipulation of the arm. This allowed students to manipulate and identify the specific skin layers involved. Evaluation of student engagement and learning was favourable, with students reflecting that they had a better understanding of the topic. Initial findings from this study highlight the benefits of quick, low-cost 3D production processes as just-in-time teaching elearning tools that have a positive impact on students' performance.


MCFADYEN, M.C.E. and WATSON, E.W. 2013. Exploring just-in-time teaching 3D development as a tool for enhancing knowledge and understanding. Pharmacy [online], 1(2), 269-281. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 25, 2013
Online Publication Date Dec 11, 2013
Publication Date Dec 11, 2013
Deposit Date Apr 2, 2020
Publicly Available Date Apr 2, 2020
Journal Pharmacy
Electronic ISSN 2226-4787
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 1
Issue 2
Pages 269-281
Keywords Virtual models; 3D visualisations; Skin; Skin lesions; Pharmacy students; eLearning
Public URL


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