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The muscle carnosine response to beta-alanine supplementation: a systematic review with bayesian individual and aggregate data e-max model and meta-analysis.

Rezende, Nath�lia Saffioti; Swinton, Paul; de Oliveira, Luana Farias; da Silva, Rafael Pires; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; Nemezio, Kleiner; Yamaguchi, Guilherme; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan; Dolan, Eimear


Nath�lia Saffioti Rezende

Luana Farias de Oliveira

Rafael Pires da Silva

Vinicius da Eira Silva

Kleiner Nemezio

Guilherme Yamaguchi

Guilherme Giannini Artioli

Bruno Gualano

Bryan Saunders

Eimear Dolan


Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation increases muscle carnosine content (MCarn), and has many proven, and purported, ergogenic and therapeutic benefits. Currently, many questions on the nature of the MCarn response to supplementation are open, and the response to these has considerable potential to enhance the efficacy and application of this supplementation strategy. To address these questions, we conducted a systematic review with Bayesian-based meta-analysis of all published aggregate data using a dose response (Emax) model. Meta-regression was used to consider the influence of potential moderators (including dose, sex, age, baseline MCarn and analysis method used) on the primary outcome. The protocol was designed according to PRISMA guidelines and a three-step screening strategy was undertaken to identify studies that measured the MCarn response to BA supplementation. Additionally, we conducted an original analysis of all available individual data on the MCarn response to BA supplementation from studies conducted within our lab (n = 99). The Emax model indicated that human skeletal muscle has large capacity for non-linear MCarn accumulation, and that commonly used BA supplementation protocols may not come close to saturating muscle carnosine content. Neither baseline values, nor sex, appeared to influence subsequent response to supplementation. Analysis of individual data indicated that MCarn is relatively stable in the absence of intervention, and effectually all participants respond to BA supplementation (99.3% response [95%CrI: 96.2 – 100]).


REZENDE, N.S., SWINTON, P., DE OLIVEIRA, L.F., DA SILVA, R.P., DA EIRA SILVA, V., NEMEZIO, K., YAMAGUCHI, G., ARTIOLI, G.G., GUALANO, B., SAUNDERS, B. and DOLAN, E. 2020. The muscle carnosine response to beta-alanine supplementation: a systematic review with bayesian individual and aggregate data E-max model and meta-analysis. Frontiers in physiology [online], 11, article ID 913. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 8, 2020
Online Publication Date Aug 14, 2020
Publication Date Dec 31, 2020
Deposit Date Jul 9, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jul 9, 2020
Journal Frontiers in physiology
Electronic ISSN 1664-042X
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Article Number 913
Keywords Nutrition; Physiology; Metabolism; Supplement; Meta-analysis; Histidine containing dipeptides; Buffering; Dosing
Public URL
Additional Information A pre-print version of this article is available from


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