Around the world approaches by Muslim governments to introduce secularisation and create national consciousness have relied heavily upon processes of state sponsored socialisation. Across the overwhelming majority of Muslim societies, secular structures, processes and national identities are, to varying degrees, in place. Overall, however, the increased prominence of Islam generally, and militant strands in particular, and the extent to which large numbers of people most strongly associate with religion rather than nation indicates that state sponsored socialisation has only been partially successful. Islam is embedded within constructions of nationalism and in some instances religious influences are contributing to processes of radicalisation and challenges to secular governments. To help explain this apparent paradox, in this chapter the emergence of Muslim nation-states and implementation of formal socialising processes is explored, and the concept of 'unintended consequences' is applied to nation-state policies and international relations. These consequences, some of which stem from previous generations, continue to resonate today, contributing towards processes of radicalisation across Muslims societies and communities.
VERTIGANS, S. 2011. Islam and the construction of modern nationalism: the unintended consequences of state sponsored socialisation. In Franco, G.H. and Cervantes, S.L. (eds.) Islam in the 21st century. New York: Nova Science Publishers [online], pages 1-26. Available from: http://www.novapublishers.org/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=11164