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Time-course analysis following initial warm-up to inform pre-pitch entry preparations of soccer substitutes.

Swinton, Paul A.; Symon, Kevin; Maughan, Patrick; Burgess, Katherine E.; Dolan, Eimear


Kevin Symon

Patrick Maughan

Eimear Dolan


The purpose of this study was to investigate the time-course of decrements in physical performance following a pre-match warm-up in soccer players. Knowledge of this information could be used to inform re-warm-ups and pre-pitch entry practices of soccer substitutes. Data were collected over five sessions with 12 male youth professionals (15-17 yrs). Across the five sessions each player performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (30 and 40 cm), pre-warm-up, immediately post-warm-up, and following 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-minutes of inactivity. Physical performance was assessed by jump height and calculation of reactive strength index (RSI). Hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs) were fitted within a Bayesian framework to identify plausible time to achieve 10 to 50% decrements of the initial pre to post warm-up improvement. Mean improvements of 5.4 cm (95%CrI: 4.8 to 6.0), 0.24 ms-1 (95%CrI: 0.19 to 0.29), and 0.32 ms-1 (0.27 to 0.36) were obtained for the CMJ, and RSI measured from the 30 and 45 cm box, respectively. Decrements for all assessments were non-linear with the steepest rates of decline measured in the initial periods following warm-up. High probabilities were calculated (p ≥ 0.979) that up to 50% of the initial warm-up improvement for the CMJ would be lost between 20 and 30 minutes. The results of this study provide a guide for future research and practitioners managing the pre-pitch entry of soccer substitutes. It is suggested that practitioners consider and assess the effectiveness of exposing players to a re-warm-up between 20- and 30-minutes prior to pitch entry to maintain performance capabilities.


SWINTON, P.A., SYMON, K., MAUGHAN, P., BURGESS, K.E. and DOLAN, E. 2022. Time-course analysis following initial warm-up to inform pre-pitch entry preparations of soccer substitutes. International journal of sports science and coaching [online], 17(4), pages 860-867. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 19, 2022
Online Publication Date Apr 27, 2022
Publication Date Aug 31, 2022
Deposit Date Mar 22, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 22, 2022
Journal International journal of sports science and coaching
Print ISSN 1747-9541
Electronic ISSN 2048-397X
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Issue 4
Pages 860-867
Keywords Inactivity; Reactive strength; Re-warm-up; Association football; Countermovement jump
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SWINTON 2022 Time-course analysis (934 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
© The Author(s) 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (

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